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There are currently 304 glossaries in this directory
10 Karat White Gold
10 Karat gold (10K) is 10 parts pure gold and 14 parts other metal alloys. White gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

10 Karat Yellow Gold
10 Karat gold (10K) is 10 parts pure gold and 14 parts other metal alloys. By combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its durability.

14 Karat White Gold
14 Karat gold (14K) is 14 parts pure gold and 10 parts other metal alloys. White gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

14 Karat Yellow Gold
14 Karat gold is 14 parts pure gold and 10 parts other metal alloys. By combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its durability.

18 Karat White Gold
18 Karat gold (18K) is 18 parts pure gold and 6 parts other metal alloys. White gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

18 Karat Yellow Gold
18 Karat gold (18K) is 18 parts pure gold and 6 parts other metal alloys. By combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its durability

Abstract Art
Art which intentionally avoids recognizable, lifelike representation of the observed world.

Abstract Expressionism
Art that is based on freedom of expression, spontaneity and random composition, characterized by loose, unrestrained brushwork and often indistinct forms.

Acrylic Paint
A versatile synthetic paint that is quick drying and can be used in thick, heavy layers or thin washes on almost all surfaces.

Action painting
A form of abstract expressionism in which the paint is applied to the canvas in the course of a series of movement (dancing, cycling or rolling about on canvas) by the artist.

An area of philosophy that is concerned with the ideals of taste and beauty and which provides criteria for the critical study of the arts.

Aesthetic Movement
An informal group of British artists who wished to break away from the rigidity of Victorian design.

Alla Prima
Technique in which the final surface of a painting is completed in one sitting, without under painting.  Italian for "at the first".

A decorated wall, screen or sectional painting set behind the altar of a Christian church, a feature of church décor dating back to the 11th century.

Free from water.

Applied Arts
Art that serves a useful purpose or that adds decoration to functional object.  The term can include architecture, interior design, ceramics, furniture design, graphics etc.  It is usually contrasted in painting, drawing, sculpture, print-making etc.

A French term for watercolour painting, where a water-based paint is applied to dampened paper in thin glaze which are gradually built up into areas of varying tone.

An elegant flourish used in design, derived from the Moresque patterns of 16th century.

Refers to materials that meet certain criteria for permanence such as lignin-free, pH neutral, alkaline-buffered, stable in light, etc.

Art Deco
The decorative art of the 1920s and 1930s in Europe and North America, originally called Jazz Modern.  It was classical in style with slender, symmetrical, geometric or rectilinear forms, a simple style.

A style of art characterized by the putting together of various objects, such as pieces of painted wood, old shoes, etc, to form a meaningful or decorative integrated whole.

The American Society for Testing and Materials. An independent standard for certain paint qualities, adopted by most manufacturers.

Term used to describe a painting by one artist only who has not been assisted by pupils or assistants.

A stone cut into a small rectangular or tapered shape with a step cut and often used as accents to larger stones.

A rigid bracelet, which can either be work by opening with a clasp and hinge, or by slipping directly over the hand.

A highly ornamental, flamboyant style of European art and architecture which lasted from the mid 16th century until the early 18th century.

Barrel Clasp
Two metal pieces on either end of a necklace or bracelet screw or click together, forming a clasp that looks like a barrel.

Bead Setting
A decorative setting in which stones are set evenly with the metal surface and secured by small metal bead-like prongs.

Beveled cut
A shape of stone where the surface has been cut at an angle less than 90 degrees. Often seen in rhinestones and other gemstones.

This is a setting used in jewelry, in which a stone is held in place by a band (either plain or with a fancy edging, around the outside of a stone. See also Prong settings).

Bezel Setting
Metal is wrapped around the girdle of the stone, making only its crown and table visible. This setting is admired for its protection, security and its ability to minimize inclusions.

The nonvolatile adhesive liquid portion of a paint that attaches pigment particles and the paint film as a whole to the support.

Stones that correspond to a specific month of the year.

Bistre or bistre
A worm brown pigment prepared from the soot of wood, especially from beech wood.

Biwa Pearl
Freshwater pearls sourced from Lake Biwa in Japan. Biwa pearls are usually irregular in shape and more lustrous than other freshwater pearl varieties.

Black Pearl
A pearl produced by a black-lipped oyster found in the tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The various colors of black pearls include grey, peacock green, purple and dark brown, and they can have additional overtones of blue, green, pink, gold or silver. The color of black pearls depends on the combination of minerals in the oyster's environment, which it injects. Also known as Tahitian pearls.

In artwork, the effect of a dark colour seeping through a lighter colour to the surface.

Imperfections found on the external surface of a diamond.

Smoothing the edges of two colours together so that they have a smooth gradation where they meet.

A dull, progressively opaque, white effect caused on varnished surfaces by damp conditions.

Blue Topaz
The most common form of topaz. Blue Topaz is traditionally used to celebrate December birthdays and the fourth year of marriage.

Body Colour
Opaque paint, such as gouache, which has the covering power to obliterate underlying colour.

Box Chain
A classic chain with small box-like links.

Box Clasp
A piece of folded metal on one end of a chain or bracelet fits into the opening of a box on the other end and securely fastens the chain or bracelet together.

Bridal Set
A set of rings that includes both the engagement ring and wedding band for her.

The light that is reflected from the diamond to the eye, or the amount of sparkle for a particular diamond.

A way in which diamonds are cut. Brilliant-cut diamonds include round, oval, teardrop, pear, princess, radiant, triangle, heart and marquise-shaped diamonds.

The distinctive way, in which an artist applies paint, being equivalent to the individual nature of handwriting.

A stone that has a smooth, rounded or dome-like surface that has been cut and polished but does not have facets

A common descriptive term for deep yellow colored diamonds

Closely woven cloth used as a support for paintings.

A unit of weight used for describing diamonds and other precious gems. The metric carat of 200 milligrams was adopted by the USA in the early 1900s and is now universally used. Also known as karat.

Carat weight
The weight of a diamond measured in carats. A carat is divided into 100 points.

A drawing of a person in which his or her most prominent features are exaggerated or distorted in order to produce a recognizable but ridiculous portrait.


A drawing or series of drawings intended to convey humour, satire or wit.
A full size drawing for a painting, mural or fresco. The drawing was fully worked on paper and then mapped out onto the surface to be painted.

Cartridge Paper
A thick sort of paper originally manufactured for soldier’s cartridges, but now extensively used in art, its rough surface being exceptionably suitable for drawing on.

Case (Watch)
Attached to the watchband, this metal covering surrounds the bezel and dial of a watch and protects its internal parts from dirt and damage. Some cases are built to resist water from entering the watch.

The art of working metals by pouring them while in fluid condition into moulds in which they solidify and harden into the form of the mould which they fill.

A soft stone, similar to a very soft lime – stone used for drawing Crayon is powdered chalk mixed with oil or wax.

A common descriptive term for light brown or medium brown colored diamonds.

The carbon residue from wood which has been partially burned and will make easily erasable black marks. Used mainly to make preliminary drawings.

Term is used to describe the effect of light and shade in a painting or drawing, especially where strong tonal contrasts are used.

A very short necklace, which sits right at the throat, generally less than 14" long.

The relative intensity or purity of a hue when compared to grayness or lack of hue.

A French word for 'lemon'. A semi-precious type of quartz that ranges in color from pale yellow to deep gold. Citrines have a hardness of 7 on the Mohs Scale.

The device used to fasten each end of a watchband, bracelet or necklace together. Clasps are traditionally made of metal and include several designs.

A style of art based on order, serenity and emotional restraint with reference to the classical art of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It followed strict ideals of beauty and figures drawn in this style were usually symmetrical and lacked the normal irregularities of nature.

Claw setting
In this setting, the stone is held securely in place by a series of metal prongs, called claws. There is no metal directly under the stone, since the setting is open. The claws grip the stone above the girdle. It is often used for transparent stones, since it lets light in under the stone.

Cluster Setting
Several stones that are grouped together for a unique design or to look like one large stone.

Cocktail ring
A large or oversized ring set with precious, Diamonds or semiprecious stones

A technique of picture making in which the artist uses materials other than traditional paint, such as cut paper, wood, sand, and so on.

The combination of bodycolour and overtone of a pearl. Color is one of the factors considered when grading natural and cultured pearls.

A diamond with no traces of body color. Light travels through a colorless diamond better than a diamond with color, resulting in exceptional brilliance.

An effect caused in the eye by light of various wavelengths. The colour seen depends on the specific wavelengths of light reflected by an object containing pigments which absorb certain light frequencies. Colours used by artists are made by combining pigments of vegetable or mineral extraction with a suitable medium, eg. Linseed oil.

A term used in art criticism to refer to an artist who places more importance and emphasis on colour than on line and form.

The arrangement of elements in a drawing, painting or sculpture in proper proportion to each other and to the painting as a whole.

Concrete Art
A term used to describe severely geometrical abstract art.

A hard resin used in making varnishes and painting mediums.

The hard calcium carbonate structure secreted by marine animals, also called coral that can be cut, polished and used to make jewellery. Coral may be found in several colors including pink, orange, red, white and black.

A mineral that comes in several colors including ruby and sapphire, depending on the metallic oxides that it contains. Corundum that does not contain any oxides is colorless and known as pure corundum or white sapphire. Rubies contain chromic oxide, blue sapphires contain oxides of titanium and yellow sapphires contain ferric oxide.

Costume Jewelry
Jewelry made from non fine or non precious materials.

Very highly fashionable jewelry and clothing that has been created by leading fashion and jewelry designers. Also referred to as Haute Couture.

More than one set of close parallel lines that crisscross each other at angles, to model and indicate tone.

Cultured pearl
A pearl produced by a mollusk as a result of a foreign object, usually a minute piece of mother of pearl, that has been artificially introduced or nucleated into its shell.

Dead Colour
A term for colours used in under painting.

Deckle Edge
The ragged edge found on handmade papers.

The act of cutting out paper designs and applying them to a surface to make an all over collage.

Designer Colours
Best quality Gouache paints, often used in commercial art.

The hardest known natural mineral to man. Diamonds are the birthstone of April and the traditional gift for the 10th, 60th and 75th wedding anniversaries. Learn more by visiting our Diamond Guide.

Diamond Clarity
One of the 4Cs that measures the amount/absence of inclusions in and blemishes on a diamond. Clarity ranges from flawless to included/imperfect.

Diamond Color
One of the 4Cs that measures the amount of body color (tint) in a diamond on a scale from colorless to yellow/brown or gray.

Diamond Council of America (DCA)
A not-for-profit organization that educates its students about diamonds, training them to become certified Diamontologists.

Diamond Cut
One of the 4Cs that determines how light travels through a stone. Cut refers to the proportions of a stone, facet angles, finish and shape.

Diamond Total Weight
The sum of the carat weights for all diamonds in a piece of jewelry.

Diamond-Cut Finish
Created by cutting the metal with a diamond, giving it a glittering and sparkling look.

Liquids, such as turpentine, used to dilute oil paint; the diluent for water based media is water.

A pair of paintings or carvings on two panels hinged together so that they can be opened or closed.

Applied to paint, a smooth, homogeneous mixture of ingredients; the process of dispersal, in which pigment particles are evenly distributed throughout the vehicle.

A non-permanent paint made by mixing colours with eggs or glue instead of oil.

A material that accelerates or initiates the drying of an oil paint or oil by promoting oxidation.

Drying Oil
An oil that, when spread into a thin layer and exposed to air, absorbs oxygen and converts into a tough film.

The art of borrowing from other styles to create a new art style.

A type of watch from Citizen that is powered by natural and artificial light, so it never needs a battery. Light enters through the crystal to a solar cell that converts it to energy.

To mould or carve in relief.

A hard, green compound of beryl that is colored by chromium and vanadium impurities. Emeralds are commonly included or flawed, and therefore frequently oiled, irradiated or dyed to enhance their color. Emeralds may also be synthetically created in a laboratory.

A type of cut in which the stone is rectangular or square with beveled corners and a step cut.

A liquid in which small droplets of one liquid are immiscible in, but thoroughly and evenly dispersed throughout a second liquid. E.g. Acrylic Emulsion

Encaustic painting
A method of paintings murals, practiced in ancient time, using a medium composed principally of wax dissolved by heat.

A technique of cutting an image into a metal or wood plate using special tools. The term is also used for a print produced in the way.

Estate jewelry
A term that refers to jewelry which has been previously owned, not necessarily from an estate.

A technique of making an engraving in a metal plate using acid to bite out the image, rather than tools. The term is also used for a print produced in this way.

Expansion Bracelet
This flexible watchband is used in place of a clasp. It is manually expanded over the wrist and retracts once it is released for a comfortable fit around the wrist.

The reddish-brown birthstone for January. Less common varieties are found in all colors except blue. Garnet is also the traditional gift for the 18th wedding anniversary.

Gemscribe® is a unique serial number that is laser-inscribed on the girdle of your diamond and only visible under a 10x magnification. This ensures a Gemscribe® diamond will never be mistaken for any other.

A stone found in nature that has the necessary rarity, beauty and durability for use in jewelry. For more information, visit our Gemstone Guide.

Genre Painting
A painting that has for its subject a scene from everyday life, as opposed to a historical event, a mythological scene, etc.

A white, absorbent prepared ground of plaster to be painted on using oil paint or tempera.

A very thin, transparent coloured paint applied over a previously painted surface to alter the appearance and colour of the surface.

Gold (Metal)
The classic metal used for most jewelry. Pure gold (24K) is too soft to be used for jewelry so it is combined with other metals to enhance durability. For example, 14K gold is 14 parts gold and 10 parts other metals.Hatching

Gold Filled
this is a term for a thin outer layer of gold over a base metal. It is abbreviated GF. As an example 1/20 GF 12K must be al last 1/20th gold and it is layered with 12karat gold. To be classified as gold filled, a jewelry item must be at least 1/20th gold by weight.

Gold Plated
In this type of finish, a very thin layer of gold is applied on the surface, usually by electroplating. Jewelry pieces with this finish are often marked G.E.P, gold plated or gold electroplate.

Gold toned
Jewelry which is finished to look like gold, but has no actual gold content.

Gold Washed
Jewelry which has a very thin layer of gold - less than 175 microns thick - which is applied by dipping or burnishing but not plating the metal. This type of coating wears off more readily than gold plated or gold filled jewelry

Opaque watercolours used for illustrations.

Graduated Necklace
A necklace which as been strung with large pearls or beads at the front which taper to smaller beads as the necklace progresses towards the back area with the clasp. Not always symmetrical.

Granite Lucite
A beautiful variation of lucite which is normally opaque, but with 'chunks' or small pieces of lucite in varying colors that emulate the look of granite. It comes in a wide variety of colors.

A monochrome painting made using only shades of grey, often used as a sketch for oil paintings.

A style of ornamental painting or sculpture characterized by a motif of flower or leaves, often with strange or imaginary animals or human figures.

The first layer of colour in a painting on which the other colours are worked, the primary or predominating colour.

Hardness (Moh's Scale of Hardness)
The ability of a stone or mineral to resist scratching. Hardness is measured from 1-10, 10 (diamonds) being the hardest.

Heart-Shaped Cut
Stones cut in the shape of a heart. Heart-shaped diamonds are a variation of the round brilliant-cut.

Herringbone Chain
A flexible chain that lies flat around the neck.

Hidden Clasp
A watch clasp that cannot be seen from the outside of the band. Portions of the metal band expand out to fit over the hand and internally fold, bringing the ends of the band together for a seamless look. Can include push buttons for added security.

Hinged Backs
Very popular in hoop earrings, this back has a hinged piece of metal that goes through the ear and snaps into a latch on the opposite side of the earring.Impasto

History painting
A genre of painting that has as its subject a scene from history, a scene from mythology or a scene from great works of literature.

The perceived colour of an object identified by a common name such as red, orange, blue.

Icon or Ikon
A religious image often that of a saint, painted on a wooden panel. The word comes from Greek word eikon meaning likeness.

International Gemological Institute. The largest independent institution that certifies gems and appraises diamonds.

An art movement originating in France in the 1860s, the main artists concerned being Cezanne, Degas, Monet, Morisot, Camille Pissaro, Renoir and Sisley. They were concerned with representing day-to-day existence in a realistic way, recording the fleeting effects of light and movement. Their usual subjects were landscapes or social scenes.

A thin, veil of paint, or paint-tinted size, applied to a ground to lessen the ground's absorbency or to tint the ground to a middle value.

The natural birthmarks inside a stone that can affect its flow of light and also add uniqueness and character. Inclusions vary in size, shape, quantity, position and color.

Indian ink
A black ink originally from China and Japan, consisting of finely divided carbon suspended in a solution of gum, glue or varnish.

Inlaid Setting
A portion of the metal setting has been cut away and replaced by a stone. In this setting, the stones are flush with the metal surface.

The cutting into a stone or other material or the etching or engraving on a metal plate of an image. The opposite of relief. Intaglio printing techniques include engraving and etching.

The purity and brightness of a colour. Also called saturation.

International Gemological Institute (IGI)
An international organization that independently certifies diamonds as to their quality and authenticity.

Invisible Setting
Several stones are mounted together by metal under the stones. The metal cannot be seen from above, making the stones appear as if they have no setting at all.

A semi-precious gemstone of either jadeite or nephrite that can be either translucent or opaque, and ranges in colors from green, white, lilac to brown and black. Nephrite can be carved into several different shapes and is often used in applications other than jewellery. Jadeite, used for jewellery, is classified into types from A to C, based on its color and enhancements.Key

The standard measurement of gold. Pure gold is 24 Karats.

Kinetic art
An art form in which light or balance are used to create a work that moves or appears to move. More complicated kinetic art object are made to move by electric motors.

Kundan refers to fine or highly refined gold foils, and and is sometimes used to describe the champleve style of setting gemstones with such foils rather than claws or rims in recesses that have been hollowed out in gold and surfaced with coloured minerals. This setting technique or style is also known as jadau or jadtar.Lithography

Lobster Clasp
Named for its resemblance to a lobster claw, this clasp has a hook with a spring-powered arm that can be opened and closed. The hook is attached to the opposite end of the chain, and the arm is closed to secure the chain.

Local Colour
The actual colour of an object or surface, unaffected by shadow colouring, light quality or other factors.

Loom State
Canvas that has not been primed, sized or otherwise prepared beforehand for painting.

A magnification tool used by jewelers to analyze gemstones and other jewelry materials. Diamonds and color stones are always evaluated at 10x magnification and in the face-up position.

The Italian word for ‘majesty’ used in art to refer to a depiction of the virgin and child on the throne surrounded by angels and saints.

Mahistick or Maulstick
A stick used by painters to steady and support the hand while working.

A technique for attaching, with glue, mural size painting on paper or fabric to a wall.

A type of cut in which the stone is elongated and pointed at both ends. A marquise stone is longer than it is wide.

Flat, nonglossy; having a dull surface appearance. Variant spelling - matt.

A material used in art, e.g. Oil in painting, pencil in drawing or bronze in sculpture. The term is also used to refer a method, e.g. Painting as opposed to sculpture.

A method of engraving on copper or steel in imitation of drawing in Indian ink, the light areas being scraped and burnished out of a prepared dark ground.

A painting, usually a portrait of very small dimension, generally executed in watercolours on vellum and later on porcelain.

Mixed Media
In drawing and painting this refers to the use of different media in the same picture.

A way in which diamonds are cut. Mixed-cut diamonds combine the qualities of the brilliant and step-cuts.

The abbreviation for millimeter; our standard unit of measurement for jewelry dimensions. For an approximate conversion to inches, see below.
3MM is approximately 1/8 inch
6MM is approximately 1/4 inch
13MM is approximately 1/2 inch
19MM is approximately 3/4 inch
25MM is approximately 1 inch
50MM is approximately 2 inches
75MM is approximately 3 inches

A reaction against the florid excesses of Art Nouveau, it sought to strip away unnecessary ornament and decoration in architecture and design.

A drawing or painting executed in one colour only.

A technique similar to collage, where the images are photographic.

Picture making technique using small units of variously coloured materials (glass, tile, and stone) set in a mortar.

Mother of Pearl
Thin layers of nacre that make up the iridescent interior of a mollusk shell. These layers are removed and used for watch faces and other pieces of jewelry.Naïve art

A repeated theme, subject or figure, e.g. in a design.

A picture or design painted directly onto a wall, a practice that began in very early times.

Natural Fancy Color Diamonds
Diamonds with a deep body color, including brown, yellow, blue, violet, orange, pink and red. Fancy color diamonds are unusual and therefore highly valued. They are rated Z+ on the color scale and have nine saturation levels from Faint to Fancy Vivid.

Nature Morte
The French term for still-life, which translate literally as ‘dead nature’.

Literally 'nine stones'. A style of jewellery in which nine types of precious and semiprecious gemstones are used, corresponding to the nine planets of Vedic astrology. The gemstones are ruby, pearl, red coral, emerald, yellow sapphire, diamond, blue sapphire, hessonite and cat's eyeOil Paint

Diamonds with little or no color visible to the naked eye. Near-colorless diamonds are classified as G, H, I or J on the color scale.

Neo- Impressionism
A development of impressionism resulting in a system of dots of pure colour applied according to scientific principles to create an image of great purity and luminosity.

A method of decorating metals plates by cutting lines in the metal and filling them up with a black or coloured composition, a technique used by goldsmiths.

A painting showing some of the characteristic features of night life.

Omega Backs
Earrings with a clip back style in the form of the Latin letter omega.

A traditionally black gemstone used to celebrate the 7th wedding anniversary.

Op Art or Optical Art
An abstract art that uses precise, hard-edged patterns in strong colours and make the images appear to move.

This gemstone is believed to reflect the colors of all other gemstones. Opal is the birthstone for October and the traditional gift for the 14th wedding anniversary.

Open back setting - a setting in which the back of the stone can be seen.Palette
The surface on which a painter will mix his colours. Also the range of colours used by an artist.

A stone with an elongated round shape. This cut is popular for color gemstones.

A paint medium of powdered colour mixed with gum Arabic to form a hard stick.


1. An artistic work that contains elements borrowed from other sources.
2.An artistic work in imitation of another’s style.

The fine green rust or verdigris with which ancient bronze statues, etc, become covered as a result of exposure.

Pavé Setting
Multiple small stones set in a curved or flat surface and held in place by prongs. The prongs are created by hand from the surrounding metal with the use of a fine sharp gravers tool. The tables of the stones will all be level with the jewelry surface.

The lower part of a diamond, located between the girdle and the culet.

An anklet, or piece of jewellery usually worn around the ankle. Also known as paizeb and tora paon

A rare variety of black or Tahitian pearls that have a dark green color and overtones ranging from pink to purple.Renaissance

Pear-Shaped Cut
Also known as teardrop-shaped, a pear-shaped stone features a rounded bottom edge that comes to a point at the top.

Organic gemstones created from layer upon layer of nacre and produced in mollusk shells. Pearls are the traditional anniversary gemstone for the third and 30th year of marriage and the birthstone for June. Today, because of their rarity in nature, most pearls are cultured. For more information, visit our Cultured Pearl Guide.

A mixture of graphite and clay in the form of a stick and covered with a hard casing.

A part of a painting that has been painted over by the artist but later reappears.

This gemstone is known for its yellow-green color. Peridot is the birthstone for August and the traditional gift for the 16th wedding anniversary.

In art, the representation of the three dimensional view in a two dimensional space.

Particles with inherent colour that can be mixed with adhesive binders to form paint.

Pink Gold
The result of combining pure gold with large amounts of copper. Also called "Rose" or "Red" Gold.

A durable precious metal, valued for its white color and purity. Platinum is hypoallergenic. To be called platinum, it must contain at least 90% pure platinum (10% other metals). (585 Platinum contains 58.5% platinum, 41.5% other metals.)

In painting, the practice of applying small strokes or dots of colour to a surface so that from a distance they blend together.

The condition of a diamond or metal's surface.

A diamond that has few facets and appears to have little fire or brilliance. Sometimes used to refer to unpolished or rough diamonds. Polkis are frequently used in kundan and jadau jewellery.

Pop Art
A realistic art style that uses techniques and subject from commercial art, comic strips, posters etc.

The art of painting, drawing or sculpting the likeness of someone, either the face, the figure to the waist or the whole person.

The metal part of the earring that goes through the pierced earlobe.

A blanket term used to describe the work of artist in the late 19th century who rejected Impressionism.

A material that prevents or inhibits the growth of micro-organisms in organic mixtures.

Concerned with forms and movement in sculpture and aesthetics of the industrial age. Works in this style, which were deliberately non-representational, made use of plastic, glass and wood.

Primary Colours
The colours red, blue and yellow which in painting, cannot be produced in his way are known as secondary colours.

Coating material, usually white, applied to a support to prepare it for painting.

An undercoat or size used to prepare a surface of painting.

Belonging to the Pre-Renaissance period in art.Characteristic of often deliberately unsophisticated modern works of art or of artists working in that subsequent.

A type of cut featuring a square stone.

Prong Setting
A stone rests in a metal base with prongs that extend to its girdle, securely holding it in place. Four-prong settings are the most popular, but some settings use more for added security.

How a diamond's angles and parts relate to one another.

The date, origin and subsequent history of a work of art.

Push On Screw Off Earring Backs
A small metal back is pushed onto the earring's post and unscrewed when removed.

Polyvinyl acetate, a man made resin used as a paint medium and in varnish.

An eight-sided rectangular or square-cut stone with approximately 70 facets.

A copy of a painting or a piece of sculpture made by the person who executed the original.

A relatively small altarpiece that can stand on the floor itself or on a pedestal behind it.

A fairly large and complex altarpiece that rises from floor level.

Return of Light
The amount of light that reflects out the top of the diamond to the eye, or the measurement of diamond brilliance.

A shiny platinum group metal that increases whiteness and strength of other metals. A rhodium finish also helps to prevent tarnishing.

Rope Chain
Several strips of metal are twisted together, resulting in a chain with a rope pattern.

Round Brilliant-Cut
Diamond cutters have developed this cut over hundreds of years. The round cut brings out a diamond's brilliance, dispersion and scintillation.

The red form of the mineral, corundum. Along with sapphires, rubies are the second hardest minerals, (diamonds are the hardest). Rubies serve as the birthstone of July and the traditional gift for the 15th and 40th wedding anniversaries.Sanguine

A form of the mineral, corundum, that comes in every color except red. Sapphires and rubies are the second hardest minerals, (diamonds are the hardest). Sapphire is the birthstone of September and the traditional gift for the 5th, 23rd and 45th wedding anniversaries.

Sapphire Crystal
A timepiece crystal that is crafted of natural or lab-created sapphire, the second hardest mineral on the Moh's Scale of Hardness (diamonds are the hardest).

Satin Finish
Similar to a brushed-finish, a satin-finish adds texture with small grooves in the metal's surface. This reduces the metal's reflectivity and adds a desirable soft sheen.

School in art
A group of artists who hold similar principles and work in similar style.

The sparkle or flash emitted by diamonds when they are moved under light.

Screw Back
Screw backs are typically used for diamond earrings. This secure backing features small metal backs that screw onto the post.

The art of carving, cutting or hewing stone, wood or other materials, or wax to create images in three-dimensional form or in relief.

A thin coating of semi-opaque colour applied on painting or drawing to soften the lines and colours and create a hazy effect.

A brown pigment used in drawing, originally prepared from a black juice secreted by certain glands of the cuttlefish.

There are numerous kinds of settings, including bezel, channel, collet, and pave.

The gradual blending of one area of colour into another without a sharp outline, as shown in the work of Leonardo da Vinci.

A technique for creating a design by cutting lines into pottery, plaster or stucco to reveal a different layer of colour below.

Term for a colour darkened with black.

Silk Screen Painting
A method of printing similar to stenciling, in which a fine mesh of silks covered with an impermeable coating for areas where colour is not to be allowed through and without a coating where colour is to show.

Silver (Metal)
A type of metal used for jewelry. Silver is often combined with other metals to increase its strength. Sterling silver consists of 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% alloy.

A drawing method using a piece of metal, usually silver wire, drawn on a ground prepared with Chinese white, sometimes with pigment added.

A red-brown chalk used for marking-out frescoes; also the preliminary drawing itself.

Material applied to a surface as a penetrating sealer, to alter or lessen its absorbency and isolate it from subsequent coatings.

A preliminary drawing made by artist to established points of composition, scale etc.

A piece of jewelry that slides onto an omega chain and acts as the centerpiece.

Snake Chain
The look of this chain is similar to the body of a snake as thin bands of metal are closely secured together.

Snap-Lock Clasp
Very popular in hoop earrings, this back has a hinged piece of metal that goes through the ear and snaps into a latch on the opposite side of the earring.

Rings, earrings or necklaces that feature a single diamond in a metal setting.

South sea pearl
A natural or cultured pearl, usually having a yellow or gold body color.

Spring Ring Clasp
This popular clasp features a small metal ring with a gap that can be opened and closed by a spring-powered lever. This ring attaches to a metal ring with no gap on the opposite end of the chain.

Squaring Up
A method for transferring an image to a larger or smaller format.

A way in which diamonds are cut. Step-cut diamonds feature rows of facets positioned in a step-like fashion. Most step-cut diamonds have four sides and a rectangular shape, such as emerald or baguette diamonds.

Sterling Silver
A durable jewelry metal consisting of at least 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% alloy.

Still Life
A drawing or painting, which depicts inanimate object, such as bowl of fruit or a vase of flowers.

The technique of painting, drawing or engraving using dots rather than lines.

A wooden chassis for textile supports that has expandable corners.

A detailed drawing or painting made of one or more parts of a final composition, but not the whole work.

A Supreme-Fit™ band is heavier than other bands making it more durable. It also is contoured on the inside for a more comfortable fit.

A style of painting and drawing characterized by a dreamy or fantastic quality. The surrealist movement began in France in the 1920s and 1930s and was inspired by the dream theories of Sigmund Freud and by the literature and poetry of Rimbaud and Baudelaire.

The precision of a diamond's cut.

Tahitian Pearl
Dark colored pearls grown in black-lipped oysters. Because of their rarity in nature, most Tahitian pearls are now cultured.

A fairly new gemstone discovered in Tanzania in 1967. Tanzanite is known for its bluish-purple hues and is December's newest birthstone as well as the traditional gift for the 24th wedding anniversary.

Tanzanite is an extraordinary gemstone. It occurs in only one place worldwide. Its blue, surrounded by a fine hint of purple, is a wonderful color

Also known as pear-shaped, a teardrop-shaped stone features a rounded bottom edge that comes to a point at the top.

A paint medium made by mixing colour pigments with egg, much used until the development of oil paint.

Tension Setting
A stone is held on either side by the metal setting, as if it was floating in the air. Unlike other settings, the tension setting exposes almost the entire stone.

A mixture of fine clay and fine-grained white sand with crushed pottery first slowly air-dried and then baked in a kiln to the hardness of stone; much used in statues, figures, etc.

Three-Piece Set
A three-piece (or trio) set is a bridal set (engagement ring and her wedding band) with a matching wedding band for him.

Tiffany Setting
Normally a rounded 6 pronged setting with thin prongs which flare out from the base. Introduced by Tiffany and Co. in 1886. Often used for large diamond solitaires today.

A piece of bridal jewellery usually worn on the head, with a pendant hanging on the forehead. Also known as tikka or maangtika.

Term for a colour lightened with white. Also, in a mixture of colours, the tint is the dominant colour.

Toggle Clasp
A metal bar on one end of the chain fits through a small metal ring on the opposite end. When flat, the bar cannot fit back through the ring, securing the ends together.

A circular painting or sculpture, from the Italian word for ‘round’.

Tongue Clasp
This clasp has a V-shaped piece of metal that securely fits into a box on the opposite end of the chain.

A semiprecious gemstone that can be found in the colors blue, brown, yellow and pink. Other colors of topaz can be created through enhancements like heat treatment.

The trunk of a statue deprived of head and limbs.

The ability of a stone to resist pressure from impact.

Tourmaline occurs in more colors or combination of colors than any other gemstone. It is heat resistant, extremely durable and the traditional gift for the 8th wedding anniversary.

In oils, the movement of one paint layer over another.

A type of cut in which the stone has three distinct sides.

A painting, usually an altarpiece, consisting of three hinged parts, the outer two folding over the middle section.

A semiprecious gemstone of bluish-green color that is made of a copper and aluminum compound with high water content. Turquoise is named after Turkey, where it was thought to have been discovered.

Under painting
A preliminary layer of colour in a painting showing the design and areas of light and shade.

Vanitas Still Life
A still life containing objects which are symbolic of the transience of life, e.g. skulls, hour-glasses, etc.

Generally, a more or less transparent film-forming liquid that dries into a solid film.

Italian for "view". An accurate representation of an urban landscape.

In art, a medium in which paints, gums, varnishes, etc. are dissolved and prepared for use.

The space that an object or figure fills in a drawing or painting.

A thin, usually broadly applied, layer of transparent or heavily diluted paint or ink.

A technique of painting using a binder made from a water-soluble gum. Watercolours can be transparent or opaque.

Wax Resist
The use of a waxy medium to make a design over which a coloured wash is spread.

Wet on Wet
The application of fresh paint over an area on which the paint is still wet.

Wheat Chain
A durable chain made up of interweaving bands of metal, resembling a grain of wheat.

White Gold
White gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

White Spirits
A thinner used with oil paints replacing turpentine.

The art of engraving on wood or of producing, by means of special cutting tools, a design or picture in relief on the surface of a block of wood from which impressions can be taken by means of ink or pigment.

Yellow Gold
Pure gold is 24 Karat, which is too soft for gold jewelry. By combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its durability.

This effect on oil paintings is usually caused by one of three reasons

Describes the forms of works of art and ornaments based on animal shapes.